It’s known around the world as the home of the famous Premier League club Newcastle United FC, but the history of Newcastle dates back to ancient times. Newcastle, located in the north bank of the River Tyne, owes its name to the castle built in 1080 by the Duke of Normandy, Robert II. By 1300, it had its own mayor and a century later gained independence from Northumberland.
In the 16th century, Newcastle became a major player in wool trade before gaining prominence as a coal-mining town. In the same century, the port developed and became the world’s largest shipbuilding and ship repairs centre.
Newcastle is the sixteenth most populous city in the United Kingdom. The first settlement can be traced back to the 2nd century, when Roman Emperor Hadrian founded the area known as Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the river Tyne. Hadrian’s Wall, originally a 117km structure set up as a defensive fortification, can still be seen in parts of Newcastle. It was built to defend the town from Scottish invaders during the border war against Scotland. In the 14th century, Newcastle was successfully defended from the Scots three times.
When the Romans left Britain in 410, Newcastle joined the kingdom of Northumbria. Then, it was known as Monkchester, named after a group of monks who had settled in the area. However, Monkchester faced destruction after a number of battles with the Danes and a rebellion against the Normans in 1080. Nevertheless, William the Conqueror took interest in the area because of its strategic position. He went on to build a castle and renamed the town Newcastle. It became England’s main fortress.
Newcastle developed considerably in the 1500s, thanks to coal trade by a cartel known as the Hotsmen. The cartel developed as a result of restrictions, imposed because of a royal act, on all coal shipments from Tyneside to the Newcastle Quayside.
The town also flourished in other enterprises, becoming the fourth largest printing centre in England, after London, Oxford and Cambridge. It also gained a reputation as a glass producer and was famed for the likeable flint glass. The 19th century saw the area develop into a shipbuilding town, making it a powerhouse during the Industrial Revolution.
Development gained momentum in the early parts of the 20th century, starting with the opening of the Redheugh Road Bridge in 1900. In 1901, the Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams became were introduced. In the same year, its first gallery, the Laing Art Gallery opened its doors.
The Great Depression hit Newcastle hard, with unemployment reaching its peak in the 1930s.
By the 1960s, Newcastle had wound down its coal business, leading to the unfortunate demise of the shipyards on the banks of the River Tyne. Coal miners have a tiring time down in the mines. They would certainly benefit from a memory foam pillow to ease their neck and head.
These memory foam pillows surround the pressure point of the neck, and gentle aid blood flow to rejuvenate the tired muscles. When you rise in the morning all the stress will have left your neck and body.